Data Link Layer 
1.1. Suppose four active nodes—nodes A, B, C and D—are competing for access to a channel using slotted ALOHA. Assume each node has an infinite number of packets to send. Each node attempts to transmit in each slot with probability p. The first slot is numbered slot 1, the second slot is numbered slot 2, and so on. 
- What is the probability that node A succeeds for the first time in slot 5?
- What is the probability that some node (either A, B, C or D) succeeds in slot 4?
- What is the probability that the first success occurs in slot 3?
- What is the efficiency of this four-node system?
- Suppose nodes A and B are on the same 10 Mbps broadcast channel, and the propagation delay between the two nodes is 325 bit times. Suppose CSMA/CD and Ethernet packets are used for this broadcast channel. Suppose node A begins transmitting a frame and, before it finishes, node B begins transmitting a frame. Can A finish transmitting before it detects that B has transmitted? Why or why not? If the answer is yes, then A incorrectly believes that its frame was successfully transmitted without a collision. Hint: Suppose at time t = 0 bits, A begins transmitting a frame. In the worst case, A transmits a minimumsized frame of 512+64 bit times. So A would finish transmitting the frame at t =512+64 bit times. Thus, the answer is no, if B’s signal reaches A before bit time t =512+64 In the worst case, when does B’s signal reach A? 
- Consider Figure 1. Provide MAC addresses and IP addresses for the interfaces at Host A, both routers, and Host F. Suppose Host A sends a datagram to Host F. Give the source and destination MAC addresses in the frame encapsulating this IP datagram as the frame is transmitted (i) from A to the left router, (ii) from the left router to the right router, (iii) from the right router to F. Also give the source and destination IP addresses in the IP datagram encapsulated within the frame at each of these points in time. 
- Let’s consider the operation of a learning switch in the context of a network in which 6 nodes labeled A through F are star connected into an Ethernet switch. Suppose that (i) B sends a frame to E, (ii) E replies with a frame to B, (iii) A sends a frame to B, (iv) B replies with a frame to A. The switch table is initially empty. Show the state of the switch table before and after each of these events. For each of these events, identify the link(s) on which the transmitted frame will be forwarded, and briefly justify your answers. 
- Consider the single switch VLAN in Figure 2, and assume an external router is connected to switch port 1. Assign IP addresses to the EE and CS hosts and router interface. Trace the steps taken at both the network layer and the link layer to transfer an IP datagram from an EE host to a CS host (Hint: Reread the discussion of Figure 6.19 in the textbook).