Each of your answers should be in the form of a short essay—do not use point form. You may use either APA, MLA, or Chicago style, but the important thing is to choose a format and apply it consistently and honestly throughout your essays. You will find it useful to consult the “Resources: General, Research,and Writing” link on the course homepage. There you will find many useful resources for writing academic papers. Additionally, you will find a number of valuable resources in the Bibliography sections at the end of each unit in the Study Guide.
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- Briefly summarize the critiques of science by Feyerebend, Marcuse, and Rifkin that are discussed by Stevenson. Why does Stevenson find these critiques interesting but unsatisfactory?
- Callahan discusses two kinds of ethical principle: teleological and deontological. Explain these two kinds of ethical principle. Use an example to illustrate the application of these two principles.
- What role do you think informed consent should play in research ethics involving human subjects?
Do you think informed consent is sufficient for covering all cases of research on humans? Why or why not?
- What is Peter Singer’s “principle of equality”? Why does Singer think the principle applies to members of species other than our own? How would society’s treatment of animals change if we followed his principle of equality? To what extent do you agree or disagree with Singer’s reasoning?
- Brunk identifies a second moral principle in “Professionalism and Moral Responsibility in the Technological Society,” (p. 151), that he says should be part of the “ethic of Conscientious Professionalism.” Identify the principle, and explain how Brunk argues it should influence the thinking of scientists and technical people. Do you agree with his argument? Why or why not?
- How does James define “whistle blowing,” and under what conditions does he think it is justified?
Do you agree with James? Why or why not?
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