Assignment代写|HA 185D Documentation Guide & Essay Tips—Brief Form

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The Scholar’s Responsibility to Document Sources: Standard Conventions on when and how to cite

Whenever you use ideas or facts derived from a source of any kind (article, book, website, interview) you need to provide a footnote for that source.  This footnote consists of 1) a superscript Arabic numeral immediately following the sentence in which the pertinent data or idea is found, and 2) a citation keyed to that number either at the bottom of that page (footnote) or at the end of the essay (endnote) that includes all publication data plus the page number(s) on which the idea, quotation, or fact is to be found. Each footnote/citation has a unique number starting at 1. The point is to permit a reader of your essay to look up and verify your specific sources.

Note:  a “Bibliography” at the end of your essay does NOT fulfill this responsibility; indeed for a paper of less than 40 pages a Bibliography is unnecessary as all the complete citations are in easy-to-find footnotes or endnotes.


When you reproduce a passage (paragraph, sentence or part of a sentence) you must include those words within quotation marks.  In most cases you also must identify the source briefly in your text.


When you reference facts or rephrase the ideas that you find in a source, you must provide sentence-by-sentence footnotes to that source, indeed to each of your sources.  If a whole paragraph is derived from a single source, begin the paragraph with a textual citation along the lines of: “According to P. K. Smith, . . .” and then end the paragraph with a footnote indicating the full citation.

Alternative Citation Systems:

There are other scholarly ways to cite sources, specifically the Social Science method in which the text is interrupted at the end of each pertinent sentence by an author’s last name, date of the publication, and page number (e.g. Smith, 2006: 423), with full publication data given in a list of Sources Cited at the end of the essay.  Do not use this system in this course.


*The first time you cite a source give the full publication data followed by page number(s); the second and subsequent times, give a shortened version of author and title followed by page numbers.

*When a sentence combines information or opinion from multiple sources, put one footnote number at the end of the sentence and place the citations sequentially in one footnote separated by semi-colons.  Do not interrupt your sentence with multiple footnote numbers.

* Footnotes are numbered sequentially, each footnote having its own number.

*Be sure to use the most authoritative source when documenting information.

*If you are quoting or paraphrasing a primary source that you found in a secondary source, you must provide full citation for the primary source followed by “as quoted/paraphrased in. . .” with full citation for the secondary source as well.

*When citing an internet source give the web address, the name of the site, and of the author (if discoverable), also include the date you accessed the web site.


It is your responsibility to learn this system of scholarly communication.  Using proper citations will signal to your reader that you are a responsible adult scholar.  Failing to do so will signal to your reader that you are engaging in intentional appropriation of someone else’s work or ideas, i.e. plagiarism, and the matter will be referred to Student Conduct.

Still have Questions?

If any of this is unclear, see your GSI or your professor.  Also check detailed instructions for citation in Kate Turabian, et al., A Manual for Writers of Research Papers. . . . or The Chicago Manual of Style online [electronic resource] which you can find using Oskicat or reference

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