这是一个美国的环境化学限时测试代写

1. Using standard data on the densities and molar volumes of minerals, what is the solid volume change (in percent solid

volume products/reactants) for the reaction Ca(OH)2 (portlandite) + CO2 = CaCO3 (calcite) + H2O? (In an open system,

with fluid flowing through open pores, the solid volume change might be similar to the total volume change).

2. How about the total volume change, including fluid with 100 ppmw ΣCO2 (the volume of dissolved CO2 in the fluid is

negligible). (In a closed system, the total volume change would be this second value).

3. In an elastic material, stress = elastic modulus x volumetric strain (%volume change ÷ 100). Assuming we are looking at

an open system where the solid volume change is close to the total volume change, and expansion is isotropic (the same

in all directions), use the shear modulus for portlandite (~ 20 GPa) to calculate the stress generated by this volume

change. How does this compare to the tensile strength of portlandite (~ 2 GPa)? Assuming some of the stress is tensional,

will the volume change fracture solid portlandite around growing calcite?

4. What are the solid volume change and total (closed system) volume changes for

2Fe (iron metal) + 6H2O(liquid) = 2Fe(OH)3 ferrihydrite + 3H2(gas)?

5. What is the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and permeability? What is the hydraulic conductivity for water

flowing through a porous sandstone composed of quartz with a permeability of 10-12 m2?

6. In lecture 10, we found that there is room for many years of CO2 storage at 5 Gt CO2/yr (~ 10% of current

annual global emissions) in depleted oil & gas reservoirs. This could potentially be useful, since such reservoirs

are already well-characterized, are known to have retained buoyant fluids (oil, gas) for 10’s to 100’s of millions of

years, and in some cases have already been permitted for CO2 injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

So let’s check that result in a different way.

Look at data on annual oil production at https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/oil-production-by

country?country=~OWID_WRL and annual gas production at https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/gas-production

by-country?country=~OWID_WRL .

Use these data and densities of oil

(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257785947_Effect_of_temperature_pressure_salinity_and_surfactant_

concentration_on_IFT_for_surfactant_flooding_optimization/figures?lo=1) and gas (convenient calculator at

https://www.unitrove.com/engineering/tools/gas/natural-gas-density) at 2 km depth in an area with surface

temperature of 15°C, a geothermal gradient of 25°C per km, and a hydrostatic pressure gradient.

What is the volume of pore space formerly occupied by all the oil and gas produced from 1965 to 2020?

7. Use the density of CO2 at the same conditions to calculate how many tons of CO2 can be stored in the volume

you found in (6) ? For how many years could this accommodate storage of 5 Gt CO2/yr ?