School of Computing Semester 2 Examination Information
– Use the Template document to report your written answers to the questions. – Submit a single PDF file via the Gradescope submission point.
– Support for the assessment is available via the module Yammer group.
– You are permitted to use your lecture notes while completing this assessment.
– There are 4 pages to this assessment.
– Answer all 3 questions.
– The number in brackets [ ] indicates the marks available for each question or part question. – You are reminded of the need for clear presentation in your answers.
– The total number of marks for this assessment paper is 60.
(a) State the similarities and differences between traditional computing clusters and computing clouds, considering the following technical and economic aspects:
(i) Hardware, software, and technical support (ii) Resource allocation and provisioning methods
(iii) Infrastructure management and protection (iv) Support of utility computing services.
(b) A company is interested in enterprise cloud computing adoption and is considering the following scenarios:
(i) The company has peak customer demand for its IT services in the month of April. It has enough IT resources to handle off peak demand but not peak load. Explain briefly what the best approach is for handling this situation.
(ii) The company wants to build a test environment to test software updates and new solutions. The test environment should mirror the production environment, be secure and inaccessible from outside the company network. The company does not want to invest in infrastructure that may be idle for a significant amount of time. Which cloud computing model will satisfy all these requirements?[4 marks]
(c) You are designing an application that requires both data acquisition and pre-processing of raw data for event filtering on the cloud. Moreover, you have the freedom to describe the underlying hardware to perform the pre-processing. Which hardware architecture would you choose for such an application? Justify your answer.[5 marks]
(d) A cloud computing company, Clouds4U, wants to introduce a cloud brokerage service. The role of the cloud broker can be either:
(i) intermediary role, or (ii) virtual service provider.
Which role should the company go for? Explain your reasoning.[5 marks] [Question 1 Total: 20 marks]
(a) A student is overheard saying the following regarding a large Mapreduce job with m mappers and r reducers:
(i) Each mapper must generate the same number of key/value pairs as its input had. (ii) The number of output jobs you get at the end of the job is m.
(iii) There will be m × r distinct copy operations in the sort/shuffle phase. (iv) A reducer is applied to all values associated with the same key.
Comment briefly on these statements, correcting any inaccuracies or omissions in them. [4 marks]
(b) Consider an application deployment scenario on a cloud virtualised infrastructure. You have the choice of using Openstack or Kubernetes to deploy virtualised services. Compare Openstack and Kubernetes considering five criteria of your choice. [5 marks]
(c) There is an explosive growth of energy consumption in cloud data centres. This explosion has led to advocacy of energy efficiency and green computing.
(i) Propose a DVFS-based VM allocation mechanism to use in order to minimise the power consumed in the data centre.
(ii) You are asked to schedule 3 Virtual Machines on 3 physical servers. The power consumption of the servers is shown in Table 1. What allocation mechanism would minimise the total power consumption? Justify your answer.
Table 1: Servers’ Power Consumption
Server 1 Server 2 Server 3 Idle power (W) 95 85 105
Power per VM (W) 20 15 10
(d) A cloud provider is setting up a Service Level Agreement (SLA) framework for Quality of Service provision for its customers. The infrastructure management supports multi-tenancy as well as availability, confidentiality and integrity. To fulfil the SLA the cloud provider needs to ensure that the acceptable level of Virtual CPU utilisation on each VM does not exceed 90%.
(i) Propose a high-level design of the SLA framework including any information that you feel is relevant to support your argument.
(ii) What issues would you consider if the cloud provider were a member of a federation? [5 marks] [Question 2 Total: 20 marks]
(a) You are required to operate a Web application on the cloud. You have the choice to deploy the application either on Virtual Machines or as Function(s)-as-a-service. Justify your choice and include any configuration information and test scenarios that you feel are relevant to support your argument. [5 marks]
(b) You are required to design a cloud security solution. The cloud as a multi-user distributed environment brings unique security challenges, dependent on the level at which the user operates: application, virtual or physical. For each level propose one security requirement and one associated threat. [4 marks]
(c) Edge computing is a distributed, open IT architecture that features decentralised processing power.
(i) Illustrate through an example how edge computing enables mobile computing and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies.
(ii) Using the same example, explain how Software-Defined Networking (SDN) works with edge computing.[5 marks]
(d) The history of human beings is closely tied to water. Fresh water has been a key factor in the emergence of civilisations, not only for direct human consumption but also for agriculture.
As an expert in cloud computing, you have been contacted by the Environment Agency to lead a project with the aim of designing a system which is able to monitor water quality by measuring different environmental parameters. Considering as an example a network of sanitary sewers, monitoring is performed in real-time to determine the quality of water and thus to establish whether elements within the network are working properly. In this way, the system is able to react against unexpected situations, avoiding possible damages that natural disasters such as floods usually cause. The system will make use of two key-elements: a pervasive water-quality sensors network connected to the cloud as well as prediction models.
Propose a cloud computing-based solution and discuss how to deploy it. Include any information that you feel is relevant to justify your recommendation. [6 marks][Question 3 Total: 20 marks]